Name: Ammonium bicarbonate
Synonyms: Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Molecular Formula: NH4HCO3
Molecular Weight: 79.05
CAS Registry Number: 1066-33-7
Ammonium bicarbonate, a compound with formula NH4(C(=O)OHO), also called bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, or powdered baking ammonia, is the
bicarbonate salt of ammonia.
Ammonium bicarbonate is formed as shown below, or by passing carbon dioxide through a
solution of the normal compound, when it is deposited as a white
powder, which has no smell and is only slightly soluble in water.
The aqueous solution of this salt liberates carbon dioxide on
exposure to air or on heating, and becomes alkaline in reaction.
The aqueous solutions of all the carbonates when boiled undergo
decomposition with liberation of carbon dioxide and the substance
with which the carbonate ion reacted to form the bicarbonate, in
this case, ammonia:
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + H2O + CO2
Ammonium bicarbonate is commonly used as an inexpensive nitrogen fertilizer in China,
but is now being phased out in favor of urea because of its
relatively low quality and instability. This compound is used as a
component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds,
pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments and it is also a basic fertilizer
being a source of ammonia. Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely
used in the plastic and rubber industry, in the manufacture of
ceramics, in chrome leather tanning and for the synthesis of
Some websites suggest substituting baking powder for ammonium bicarbonate, instead of baking soda.
|Product name||Ammonium bicarbonate|
|Molar mass||79.056 g/mol|
|Melting point||107.5 ºF, decomp.|
|Solubility in water||11.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)|
|Solubility||insoluble in methanol|
|Other cations||Sodium bicarbonate|